How Rich Nations Got Rich Three Essays by Erik Reinert.

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How Rich Nations Got Rich: Three Essays by Erik Reinert.
If Economics is defined as 'the study of wealth', then one of its central questions must be: how did some nations become rich over the course of centuries, whilst others remained or indeed became, poor?
This series of essays provides an answer: one that is at complete odds with the dogmas of mainstream economics. They argue that nations seldom become wealthy through the invisible hand of market forces; rather they make themselves wealthy through the application of a series of measures that direct individual activities towards the common good.
The first essay studies the theory and practice of Mercantilism - the policy of economic nationalism that pursues long-term public interests at the expense of short-term private ones. The second explores the economics tradition of a great European nation that transformed itself from an agricultural backwater into an industrial powerhouse: Germany. The last essay investigates the experience and influence of the pioneers of European mercantilism: the Dutch. 
These texts will be of interest to anyone concerned with the subjects of economics and history, or with the problems of poverty and underdevelopment.
As a bonus, this torrent also includes 'The Mercantile System and its Historical Significance' by Gustav von Schmoller, a leading member of the German Historical School, who did not balk from describing the dark history of the period:
'As in the East Indies, the ancient source of supply for Oriental wares, for pearls and spices, the Portuguese violently pushed their way in first, annihilated Arabian trade with unheard-of brutality, and imposed upon all the Asiatic tribes and states the rule that they should carry on trade with Portuguese alone; so in later times the Dutch were able to drive the Portuguese out, to get for themselves a like monopoly of the spice trade, to keep other Europeans away by craft and by mercantile talent, - if need were, by insolent violence and bloodshed, and to hold the people of the East in commercial subjection... These Dutch, so lauded by the naif free-trader of our day on account of the low customs-duties of their early days, were from the first the sternest and most warlike of monopolists after the mercantilist fashion that the world has ever seen. As they suffered no trading ship, whether European or Asiatic, in East Indian waters, without a Dutch pass to be bought only with gold; as by force of arms and by treaty they kept the Belgian port of Antwerp, shut up against commerce; as they crushed the Prussian colony in Africa, and countless other settlements of other nations; so at home they forbade all herring-fishers to take their wares to any but the Dutch market, and prohibited their passing into foreign service, or taking to foreign countries the implements of their craft.... In the time of their prosperity they were carrying on war well-nigh all the time, and war for commercial ends; and they shewed more skill than any other state, in the seventeenth century, in getting out of their wars fresh commercial advantages.' (page 32) 
 
How Rich Nations Got Rich.pdf 453.343 KB
The Mercantile System.pdf 176.349 KB
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